Sistemas silvoaráveis no Reino Unido
Descrição do sistema
Sistemas silvoaráveis são actualmente raros no Reino Unido. Os poucos sistemas que existem são geralmente baseados num design de culturas em faixas com culturas arvenses nas faixas. A componente arbóreo consiste quer em árvores de fruto (maçãs, pêras ou ameixas), árvores para madeira ou árvores em talhadias para lenha.
Reunião de stakeholders inicial
A 18 de Novembro de 2014, um workshop para stakeholders focado em sistemas agroflorestais silvoaráveis no Reino Unido foi realizado no Wakelyns Agroforestry em Suffolk. Estiveram presentes nove stakeholders, incluindo sete produtores de culturas arvenses. Wakelyns Agroforestry é um site de investigação silvoarável orgânica que foi estabalecido em 1994 em 22,5 ha na fronteira Suffolk/Norfolk, no leste da Inglaterra (52,4° N, 1,4° E). Integra talhadias de aveleiras e salgueiros e um sistema misto de árvores para madeira e árvores de fruto com cereais, batatas, legumes e pousios em rotação dentro das faixas. No final do workshop os participantes identificaram possíveis temas para futuraspesquisas que incluiam o papel dos sistemas agroflorestais na redução dos danos das pragas e, portanto, do uso de pesticidas, bem como a escolha de espécies arbóreas a usar.
Se você gostaria de saber mais sobre a actividade deste grupo, entre em contato com o Dr Jo Smith (email@example.com).
Download the initial stakeholder report
An initial report was provided in November 2014.
Download the initial research and development protocol
Two protocols were produced in April and June 2015.
The first protocol focuses on the testing of cereal mixtures and the second focuses on understorey management of the tree rows.
Download the system description
Two system description reports were produced in April 2016.
The first system report focuses on the testing of cereal mixtures and the second focuses on the understorey management of tree rows.
Jo Smith and colleagues at the Organic Research Centre in the UK have produced two “Lessons Learnt” reports on silvoarable systems in the UK.
The first report focuses on research at Wakelyns Agroforestry in Suffolk. Although willow has been widely promoted in the UK, their research shows that under the relatively dry conditions in Suffolk, the biomass and bio-energy yields of hazel can be as high as that for willow. The effect of lines of SRC on spring oats, barley, and wheat yields were examined within a long-term programme investigating the effects of an evolutionary plant breeding approach. With the possible exception of the oats, the yield of each crop declined with greater proximity to uncoppiced tree rows. The last part of the report demonstrates how the Yield-SAFE model can be used to describe the biomass production of crops and willow over time in different configurations.
The second report focuses on a silvoarable system at Tolhurst Organics in Berkshire, where rows of eight tree species (with an inter-row width of 20 m) were planted in March 2015 within an area used for organic vegetable production. The trees established well with only a 5% failure rate, but tree protection was needed to minimise deer damage. A focus of the study was on the biodiversity related to the tree rows, and six types of vegetation cover were examined including a long-term beetle bank, natural regeneration, and four types of legume mixtures. In the first year, the long term beetle bank had the highest number of floral species but by the second year many of the treatments had similar levels of floral species. In total, 75 different plant species were recorded over the three-year period. The report also examines the effect on ground invertebrates and earthworms. The last part of the report looks at the costs of establishing the tree rows and the opportunities for including marketable crops within the tree rows.